The color of a paint is simply a reflection of its light waves. Finding an exact matching paint hue is done by measuring this light in a scan and then generating a formula. This computer program is a tool that calculates the recipe to create any specific color. It took much trial and error to perfect this process. However now in modern times color matching is practically a perfect process.
This computer program is used by large paint manufacturers. It was originally written based on the color wheel. People can still use a manual color wheel to find the correct color values and amounts to create a particular shade. The formulas for color mixing are based on that concept. Put the shade into the wheel and dial up the correct amount of each color to mix.
Painters may also utilize other computer programs and calculators to find the correct amount of paint needed for a particular area, and for interior design paint matching purposes.
Paint pigments are manufactured for several different purposes. They may be sold for a certain hue or a pure and intense chroma color. A pigment may need to be a particular particle size to be used with certain products under chemical composition demands. A manufacturer may decide which pigments to use by cost to produce, the intended light source of a product, or by its colorfastness or quality. This may include durability and time to dry.
People should make decisions on what type of paint color to use by the type of light in the room or space. There is natural sunlight, indirect light, shade, and darkness. There are many color families. There are primary colors, secondary, tertiary, monochromatic, complementary, warm, and cool.
Refined colors are made to be exact matches. It could be an authentic adobe Indian light brown, or an Italian stucco tan. Maybe a person needs a true sky blue or an original Ford Model-T black.
Every type of paint contain pigments. This is the base ingredient that determines the color. Pigments in modern manufacturing can be made of clay, silica, carbon black, iron oxide, or titanium dioxide. Throughout history, people have made paint pigments using plants, berries, blood from animals, rocks, and other natural sources. Today paint pigments can be made synthetically.
Paint contains several types of ingredients to create the finished product. It will have a solvent to help loosen or give the right viscosity. Latex uses water as its solvent which makes it a safer overall paint. Other solvents can be more harmful chemicals. Paint also has binders, fillers and additives. Each ingredient has a different purpose which contributes to the final product. The pigment is similar to food coloring in a cake recipe.